A few days ago I stumbled on Didier's observations from evangelizing Clojure at work for the last year. It's worth reading. His metaphors are graphical, down-to-earth, and beautifully accurate.
During last year I was on a similar mission and, to build on Didier's points, here's a list of 12 things I learned broken down into 4 things that worked and I would do again, 4 things that didn't work but could easily be fixed, and 4 things that didn't work I wouldn't do again.
Four things that worked and I would do again
1) Create a community of passionate developers
Having a group of interested, passionate developers was a big win. A core group of Clojure enthusiasts (even if it's a tiny group) helps a lot.
Do make sure this group has easy ways to connect to each other. We've used a dedicated slack channel and went out on a few meetups and conferences together. These were very good for the team.
In retrospect, we would have benefited from recurring internal sessions to share experiences and concerns. Some issues can be surfaced better this way.
2) Hammer down the learning nature of Clojure
Our little Clojure community quickly turned out to be very learners' oriented. Maybe Clojure is one of those languages where one is always learning. Maybe it was just us.
We openly shared questions, doubts, and potential solutions to any kind of problem. There was no stupid question. It was a judgment-free environment. This attitude helped establishing an atmosphere of friendliness - particularly around beginners.
Hammer down this learner-friendly mentality and make sure others in your organization see this as well. There are some practical barriers to starting Clojure and the last thing you want is your internal community to be yet another one.
3) Cursive and Parinfer
Developers used to lightweight editors such as Atom and Sublime struggled a bit at first but Cursive is a very well-designed powerhouse.
There's no hiding that parens do get on the way of beginners of any Lisp dialect but Parinfer brought at least some sign of familiarity by nicely parsing tabulation into intended parens. For developers just using Lisp for the first time Parinfer out-shined Paredit (which in turn out-shined nothing at all).
4) Bake in time for learning
Our successful Clojure cases were those where we allocated enough time for learning either before or in the very early stages of the project.
A caveat though: don't let the learning process be too long or too loose. Make sure you have targets and guidelines actively driven by experienced developers or you risk making the learning process morose and fruitless.
Four things that did not work (but could be easily fixed)
1) Reloaded Workflow and Stuart Sierra's Components
In retrospective these would need to be understood and used much earlier by all. Reloaded is not only a life-changer from the REPL perspective, but also is a great way to manage dependencies. We didn't really "preach the gospel" well enough to all Clojure developers.
One of the challenges was Components' apparent object-like approach. This scared some of the more juniors developers and made some of the functional purists frown. Recently we have been enjoying mount instead of Components and adoption is going very smoothly.
2) Being too "free" on the IDE side
I mentioned Cursive and Parinfer above as great wins. We should have made that combo the recommended one from the very beginning. We've let developers experiment broadly. We had Emacs, Atom, VSCode, and Cursive on the mix (if I'm not mistaken someone tried Vim).
This was a fascinating journey but we were unable to support each other more efficiently. We even had developers understandably loathing Clojure after struggling with a totally bare Atom for weeks.
We should have been able to collectively support these cases better.
3) The "cool kids" effect
I mentioned above the importance of keeping your internal Clojure community learners-friendly but there will still be a bit of an aura of "those brainy, know-it-all, cool kids coding on this esoteric language." It's a bit unavoidable and Didier's article points to some of the potential reasons behind it.
In retrospect I would have been more aware of this effect and tried to demystify this image more openly and publicly. The fact that functional paradigms and Lisp-like dialects just click for you doesn't mean they do for anyone else.
4) Functional programming is harder than Clojure
After you get across the syntax barrier of Clojure there's a much, much bigger one: functional programming.
All of us struggled - to one extent or another - with Clojure's purely functional nature in the early days. Some of us didn't get through that barrier because thinking with a functional perspective is much harder than learning Clojure itself.
In retrospect we should have trained our team in functional programming (via Clojure of course) and not Clojure alone. It would have been a much smoother and enjoyable ride.
Four things that did not work (and I won't do again)
1) Not training on the REPL strongly enough
Using a REPL does not come naturally to most of us used to the traditional code -> compile -> debug cycles. Having an in-line, IDE-embedded REPL is one of the most productive setups possible but it requires a different mindset to make it work. We have inculcated the less productive cycle onto developers for so long that we all need to rediscover the REPL.
We erred by not training anyone - anyone at all!! - on the REPL alone. We assumed it would be a natural stepping stone but it wasn't. I was flabbergasted when I learned that in one project we rarely even used it.
Never assume that the REPL will be used just because. Train people on the workflow.
2) Clojure plus ClojureScript too soon
Bringing the full-stack promise of Clojure and ClojureScript to the equation is very tempting. We brought the whole shebang just too soon though. Our team was barely prepared for Clojure and we were already adding concessions to ClojureScript.
Start with Clojure or ClojureScript, make that portion solid and then move to the next.
Trying both at the same time adds one too many target environments, cross-compilation concerns, and different problem domains to the conversation. The team may feel overwhelmed - justifiably so.
3) Om Next for an uninitiated team
Some of us fell in love with Om Next's ideas: the queries close to components; the reconciler; those beautiful remotes coordinating data flow; simple optimistic updates... everything is as if straight from our wildest dreams.
It's not a simple framework though. It has its wrinkles and documentation is far from beginner-friendly. On top of that, Om Next relies on mid-to-advanced Clojure features.
We should have started with something simpler and more accessible so that developers would have a more enjoyable ride first.
4) Pushing too many things in parallel
This was by far our biggest mistake. Clojure was an abysmal failure in situations where we were pushing too many things at once while trying to get people on track with Clojure itself.
If your team has never worked with AWS, for instance, and you are trying to get Clojure at the same time, chances are things will be tougher and Clojure might get most of the blame.
Not everyone will pick up Clojure for one reason or another. And that's OK. Removing as many of the barriers as possible makes the conversion easier but not absolutely certain.